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NEWS & FEATURES / HEALTH CONCERN – ARTIKEL

Awas, Legiun Bakteri Serang Pernapasan!

Rabu, 2 Februari 2011 | 10:18 WIB

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KOMPAS.com – Akhir Januari lalu, Provinsi Bali geger. Laporan Dinas Kesehatan setempat menyebutkan, 10 orang wisatawan asal Australia yang tengah berlibur di Pulau Dewata diduga mengidap penyakit legionnaire.
Penyakit legionnaire adalah infeksi saluran pernafasan akut yang disebabkan bakteri Legionella pneumophilia dan spesies lainnya dari legionella. Bakteri ini bisa menyebabkan serangkaian penyakit, mulai dari batuk ringan, batuk berdahak, demam hingga pneumonia (radang paru).
Menurut Sardikin Giriputro, Dokter Spesialis Paru dari RSPI Sulianti Saroso, penyakit legionnaire biasa menyerang kaum lanjut usia (lansia) dan orang yang mengalami gangguan sistem kekebalan tubuh.
“Penderita penyakit ini biasanya orang yang berusia 50 tahun ke atas dan terganggu sistem kekebalan tubuhnya,” katanya.
Sardikin menambahkan, penyakit legionnare dapat dimasukkan dalam kategori ringan maupun berat. Untuk kategori ringan, gejalanya adalah seperti penyakit flu biasa, batuk kering, dan infeksi saluran pernafasan.
Adapun untuk kategori legionnaire berat, gejala yang muncul biasanya si penderita mengalami demam tinggi hingga tingkat kesadarannya menurun karena oksigen yang diterima tubuh berkurang. “Pada kelompok pasien yang mengalami gangguan kekebalan tubuh, legionnaire bisa menyebabkan kematian,” kata Sardikin.
Berasal dari Amerika Serikat
Dia menjelaskan, penyakit legionnaire pertama kali ditemukan di Amerika Serikat (AS) tahun 1976. Saat itu, ada sejumlah veteran legiun asing yang menginap di sebuah hotel di Philadelphia, AS, untuk menggelar konvensi veteran. Ketika itulah, sejumlah veteran diketahui mengalami demam, batuk-batuk, disertai kejang otot.
Ternyata, penyakit itu terus berkembang menjadi gangguan pernapasan akut, sehingga menyebabkan kematian. Tercatat, 221 prajurit terinfeksi penyakit tersebut dan 34 lainnya meninggal dunia. Dari hasil penelitian dinas kesehatan setempat, penyakit itu disebabkan oleh sebuah bakteri yang sebelumnya tidak diketahui. Karenanya, bakteri itu dinamakan legionnella, berasal dari kata legiun.
Tingkat prevalensi (penyebaran) penyakit yang disebabkan oleh bakteri legionella di AS memang cukup tinggi. Setiap tahun, penyakit legionnaire ini menjangkiti sekitar 8.000-18.000 masyarakat AS. Bagaimana di Indonesia?
“Jumlah penderita tuberkulosis (TBC) masih lebih banyak ketimbang infeksi saluran pernapasan yang dipicu bakteri Legionella pneumphilia,” kata Ade Rusmiati, dokter spesialis paru-paru dari Rumah Sakit Medika Permata Hijau, Jakarta.
Bakteri Legionella pneumophilia menjadikan udara sebagai media penularannya. Jarak penularan bakteri ini dapat menyebar melalui aliran udara hingga radius 300 meter. Penularannya juga dapat melalui minum air yang mengandung legionella. Selain itu, bisa melalui aspirasi air yang terkontaminasi, inokulasi langsung melalui peralatan pernapasan rumahsakit dan pengompresan luka dengan air yang terkontaminasi.
Penetrasi bakteri ke dalain darah ini dikenal dengan istilah bakterimia. Bila aliran darah seseorang terkontaminasi dengan bakteri jahat, seperti legionella pneumphilia, sudah pasti efek samping yang ditimbulkan bakal merugikan orang tersebut.
“Kalau sudah begitu, butuh penanganan khusus, karena bakteri sudah menyebar ke seluruh tubuh pasien,” kata Ade. 

Catatan saja, masa inkubasi bakteri legionella pneumphilia berkisar 2-10 hari. (Raymond R, Dikky S)http://health.kompas.com/index.php/read/2011/02/02/10185195/Awas.Legiun.Bakteri.Serang.Pernapasan

Departemen kesehatan, khususnya di Bali, tidak perlu merisaukan pemulangan 10 wisatawan Australia karena diduga mengidap penyakit Legionella, penyakit saluran pernapasan yang disebabkan oleh bakteri Lionel.

Penyakit yang lebih parah dari demam berdarah itu bisa menyebabkan radang paru-paru akut, terutama melanda kelompok usia di atas 65 tahun yang umumnya memiliki daya tahan tubuh yang lemah. Penyakit yang disebabkan oleh bakteri yang hidup di air hangat tidak menular dari manusia ke manusia. Demikian dr Agus Somia dari RS Sanglha di Denpasar Bali.

Dr. Agus Somia (DAS) : Penyakit legionela adalah suatu penyakit infeksi yang disebabkan oleh bakteri yang diberi nama Legionella. Penyakit ini menyerang saluran napas di paru-paru. Dalam bahasa Inggris penyakit ini disebut Legionaire Disease.

Radio Nederland (RNW) : Belakangan yang marak di Indonesia adalah wabah Demam Berdarah. Apakah penyakit Legionella ini lebih parah?

DAS : Angka kematian akibat penyakit Legionella, lebih besar. Kalau terinfeksi oleh bakteri Legionel, jumlah kematian lebih tinggi sampai 30%. Kematian akibat infeksi yang disebabkan oleh demam berdarah, lebih rendah. Dibawah 0,5%. Jadi sangat kecil sekali angka kematian yang disebabkan oleh demam berdarah. Jadi dilihat dari jumlah kematian.

Tapi kalau dilihat dari segi out-break-nya secara epidemologi, jumlah orang yang terkena demam berdarah lebih luas. Demam berdarah disebabkan oleh gigitan nyamuk sedangkan penyakit Legionela tidak. Penyakit ini disebabkan oleh bakteri yang masuk kedalam badan lewat pernapasan.

RNW : Jadi penyakit Legionella disebabkan oleh bakteri Legionella?
DAS : Ya.

RNW : Di mana bakteri itu menyebar?
DAS : Bakteri ini hidup dengan baik di air yang hangat misalnya di kolam renang, cooling tower yang ada airnya dengan suhu sekitar 24 derajat Celsius. Disana bakteri itu hidup dengan baik. Bakteri itu terbawa oleh uap udara dari air yang hangat itu, dia masuk dalam badan manusia lewat saluran napas, kemudian berkembang biak dan menimbulkan penyakit di paru-paru.

Jadi bakteri Legionela itu hidup di dalam air yang suhunya hangat sekitar 24 derajat Celsius. Bisa di tempat pemapungan air, saluran AC, di kolam renang, disana bakteri itu tumbuh.

RNW : Tidak sering kita dengar tentang penyakit Legionella di Indonesia, ya?
DAS : Kalaupun ada sangat gampang diobati. Ada obat anti-biotik yang bisa membunuh bakteri itu. Gejala-gejalanya mirip dengan infeksi saluran napas yang umum, tapi penyakit Legionella itu kadang-kadang lebih serius. Bisa menyebabkan kerusakan di paru-paru kalau bakteri itu masuk kedalam saluran napas kita.

Masa inkubasinya dari 2 sampai 14 hari kemudian timbul gejala-gejala seperti demam yang tinggi, menggigil, batuk. Hampir sama dengan penyakit saluran napas yang lain. Kalau disebabkan oleh bakteri Legionella situasi dan kondisi tubuh lebih cepat memburuk.

RNW : Apakah di Bali sering ditemukan pasien penyakit Legionella?

Penasaran? Temukan jawabannya dengan meng-klik tanda panah di bawah ini:

http://www.rnw.nl/bahasa-indonesia

Legionella Control, Prevention & Risk Assessments

Legionella Control International are world leading Legionella specialists providing wholly independent and impartial consulting advice on all matters relating to the control, management and prevention of Legionella associated risks. 

Legionella Control International are Legionella experts and help and advise organisations across most commercial, industrial, healthcare, governmental and non-profit sectors. As independent consulting specialists we offer our clients completely impartial advice on a full range of Legionella risk management and other environmental disciplines.

Our specialist consulting services are delivered through teams of experts who have national and international reputations for unambiguous and impartial advice across their specialist areas of expertise which includes Legionella and Legionnaires disease risk management, crisis and emergency management, expert witness and litigation support, health and safety training, water treatment, water and environmental hygiene services, building engineering services and facilities management.

Legionella Risk Assessments

Our professional Legionella risk assessments and integrated risk management programmes take a holistic approach to the control and management of Legionella and other waterborne pathogens that may exist in water systems … legionella risk assessments >>

Do You Need a Legionella Risk Assessment? 

Find out whether you actually need a Legionella risk assessment with our easy to use guide. This informative guide covers a number of important issues you’ll need to consider including:

What is a Legionella risk assessment?
Do I need a risk assessment and why?
Can I do it myself?
more >>

Legionella Training

Our range of professional Legionella training and awareness courses have been developed to suit varying levels of technical competence and experience ranging from the complete beginner with little or no understanding of the issues that surround the control og Legionella risks, those wishing to take on the role of the “Responsible Person”, advanced training for experienced engineers; and refresher Legionella training for those wishing to update their skills and remain current legionella training >>

– an introduction to Legionella and Legionnaires’ disease ….
– intermediate training for managers involved with Legionella
– an advanced course for engineers and professionals ….
– refresher training for “Resonsible Persons”, managers ….
– certified online learning packages to intermediate levels ….
– bespoke training courses designed to meet your needs ….
– on-site training courses, where we come to you ….
– a range of high quality health and safety training courses ….

Latest Training Dates – For details of forthcoming public training courses, dates and venues please select the following link … training dates >>

Legionella Risk Management

Although it is impossible to guarantee that pathogenic microorganisms such as Legionella will not exist in a water system, through proactive management and effective control programs it is possible to dramatically reduce the factors that allow those responsible bacteria to proliferate … legionella risk management >>

Legionella Testing & Sampling

We offer fully accredited Legionella water testing, sampling and microbiological laboratory analysis services capable of undertaking an extensive range of analyses including those for Legionella, E.coli O157, Pseudomonas, Norwalk virus and many more … legionella testing & sampling >>

Water & Environmental Hygiene Services

Our water, air and environmental hygiene services teams offer a range of system disinfection and planned, preventive maintenance programmes designed to control and prevent the proliferation of pathogenic micro-organisms such as Legionella in water systems and other stored supplies … water hygiene >>

Independent Legionella Audits

Our independent Legionella audits have been developed to give you and your organisation the confidence that your existing control systems and management procedures are compliant with current good practice and latest legislation. They also help to ensure that you can demonstrate to the controlling authorities that your risk management systems and procedures are compliant … independent legionella audits >>

Expert Witness & Litigation Support

Our specialist Legionella expert witness and litigation support services cover a range of technical, scientific, environmental and engineering issues … legionella expert witness & litigation support >>

Risk Management Software

Our innovative Legionella risk management software system “LegionellaSafe”, has been developed to support water treatment service providers, facilities management professionals and those organisations involved in the management and control of risks associated with Legionella and other pathogenic microorganisms that may occur in water systems and supplies across single and multi-site facilities … legionella risk management software >>

Download LegionellaSafe Presentation >>

Crisis & Emergency Management

We can help you and your organisation plan for the possibility of an outbreak of Legionnaires’ disease. Our teams of crisis management experts and consultants can assist with the development and implementation of proactive crisis and emergency management planning activities … crisis & emergency management >>

Additional Information & Assistance

If you would like to learn more about our range of services or require specialist support please call us on +44 (0) 161 877 0586 or email info@legionellacontrol.com.

Legionella Control International are world leading Legionella specialists providing wholly independent and impartial consulting advice on all matters relating to the control, management and prevention of Legionella associated risks. 

Legionella Control International are Legionella experts and help and advise organisations across most commercial, industrial, healthcare, governmental and non-profit sectors. As independent consulting specialists we offer our clients completely impartial advice on a full range of Legionella risk management and other environmental disciplines.

Our specialist consulting services are delivered through teams of experts who have national and international reputations for unambiguous and impartial advice across their specialist areas of expertise which includes Legionella and Legionnaires disease risk management, crisis and emergency management, expert witness and litigation support, health and safety training, water treatment, water and environmental hygiene services, building engineering services and facilities management.

Legionella Risk Assessments

Our professional Legionella risk assessments and integrated risk management programmes take a holistic approach to the control and management of Legionella and other waterborne pathogens that may exist in water systems … legionella risk assessments >>

Do You Need a Legionella Risk Assessment? 

Find out whether you actually need a Legionella risk assessment with our easy to use guide. This informative guide covers a number of important issues you’ll need to consider including:

What is a Legionella risk assessment?
Do I need a risk assessment and why?
Can I do it myself?
more >>

Legionella Training

Our range of professional Legionella training and awareness courses have been developed to suit varying levels of technical competence and experience ranging from the complete beginner with little or no understanding of the issues that surround the control og Legionella risks, those wishing to take on the role of the “Responsible Person”, advanced training for experienced engineers; and refresher Legionella training for those wishing to update their skills and remain current legionella training >>

– an introduction to Legionella and Legionnaires’ disease ….
– intermediate training for managers involved with Legionella
– an advanced course for engineers and professionals ….
– refresher training for “Resonsible Persons”, managers ….
– certified online learning packages to intermediate levels ….
– bespoke training courses designed to meet your needs ….
– on-site training courses, where we come to you ….
– a range of high quality health and safety training courses ….

Latest Training Dates – For details of forthcoming public training courses, dates and venues please select the following link … training dates >>

Legionella Risk Management

Although it is impossible to guarantee that pathogenic microorganisms such as Legionella will not exist in a water system, through proactive management and effective control programs it is possible to dramatically reduce the factors that allow those responsible bacteria to proliferate … legionella risk management >>

Legionella Testing & Sampling

We offer fully accredited Legionella water testing, sampling and microbiological laboratory analysis services capable of undertaking an extensive range of analyses including those for Legionella, E.coli O157, Pseudomonas, Norwalk virus and many more … legionella testing & sampling >>

Water & Environmental Hygiene Services

Our water, air and environmental hygiene services teams offer a range of system disinfection and planned, preventive maintenance programmes designed to control and prevent the proliferation of pathogenic micro-organisms such as Legionella in water systems and other stored supplies … water hygiene >>

Independent Legionella Audits

Our independent Legionella audits have been developed to give you and your organisation the confidence that your existing control systems and management procedures are compliant with current good practice and latest legislation. They also help to ensure that you can demonstrate to the controlling authorities that your risk management systems and procedures are compliant … independent legionella audits >>

Expert Witness & Litigation Support

Our specialist Legionella expert witness and litigation support services cover a range of technical, scientific, environmental and engineering issues … legionella expert witness & litigation support >>

Risk Management Software

Our innovative Legionella risk management software system “LegionellaSafe”, has been developed to support water treatment service providers, facilities management professionals and those organisations involved in the management and control of risks associated with Legionella and other pathogenic microorganisms that may occur in water systems and supplies across single and multi-site facilities … legionella risk management software >>

Download LegionellaSafe Presentation >>

Crisis & Emergency Management

We can help you and your organisation plan for the possibility of an outbreak of Legionnaires’ disease. Our teams of crisis management experts and consultants can assist with the development and implementation of proactive crisis and emergency management planning activities … crisis & emergency management >>

Additional Information & Assistance

If you would like to learn more about our range of services or require specialist support please call us on +44 (0) 161 877 0586 or email info@legionellacontrol.com.

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